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Depth analysis of silver ions

Hits:Updated:2019-10-21 09:10:51【Print】

Depth analysis of silver ions
 
Silver ions are positively charged cations formed by metal silver losing more than one electron, such as Ag1+, Ag2+, Ag3+, and the like. It exists in the form of an aqueous solution, and silver ions have an oxidation effect and are often used for sterilization and the like. Silver ion antibacterial agents are among the many antibacterial agents with high efficacy and safety. How to distinguish between nano silver ions and electrolytic silver ion antibacterial agents? What is the difference between the two antibacterial? This article is for you to come together.
 
First, the basic concepts and common sense
Molecule, atom, electron, ion
Molecules are the smallest particles that exist independently and retain the chemical properties of a substance.
An atom is the smallest particle that makes up a substance. An atom consists of a nucleus and electrons that surround the nucleus.
The entire polarity of the atom is neutral. If the atom's number of protons and the number of electrons are not equal, then it becomes an ion. If the number of electrons is greater than the number of protons, the polarity of the ion is negative, whereas the polarity of the ion is positive. An ion with a negative polarity is called an anion, and an ion with a positive polarity is called a cation.
In a chemical reaction, a metal element atom loses the outermost electron, and a non-metal atom acquires an electron, thereby causing the atom participating in the reaction to carry a charge. Charged atoms are called ions, positively charged atoms are called cations, and negatively charged atoms are called anions.
 
2. Nano, ion volume
Nano is a unit of length, one billionth of a meter (meter → cm → mm → micron → nanometer), about one ten thousandth of the hair thickness.
1 micron = 1000 nanometers, that is, 1 to 999 nanometer units are called nanometers.
The size of the atom is one ten-thousandth of a millimeter (mm). One ten thousandth of a micron (μm).
Thus, it can be known that 1 nanometer is about 10 ions (atoms) in size.
The manufacturing technology of nano silver is up to 4 to 5 nanometers in Japan. That is, one nano-silver fine powder particle can hold 40 to 50 ions (atoms). And the general nano silver manufacturing technology,
The size of the fine powder particles is in the range of 10 to 20 nanometers. That is, it can hold 100 to 200 ions (atoms).
 
3. The size of the microorganism is based on micron
For example, a standard paramecium - a single-celled freshwater creature - is about 2 microns wide.
The diameter of the cocci is between about 0.75-1.25 micrometers (μm), the length of the bacillus is about 2-5 micrometers (μm), and the length of the spiral bacteria is about 100-200 micrometers (μm).
The virus is much smaller than the bacteria and must be visible by electron microscopy.
Ions (atoms) are tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands of parts of bacteria. Silver ions act as cations and are therefore easily adsorbed by anionic bacteria into the body of bacteria.
 
4. Bacteria are divided and multiplied, and viruses are reproduced by self-replication.
Bacterial viruses multiply at an extremely fast rate and grow geometrically. Generally, cell division takes only 20 to 30 minutes at a time. The conditions are appropriate, the virus replication cycle is short, and it may multiply several million times in a few minutes.
 
5. Antibacterial, bactericidal, disinfecting, antibacterial
Anti-microbial: is a generic term that includes bactericidal and bacteriostatic.
Microbiocide: refers to the process of killing microbial auxotrophs and propagules in the system to be treated.
Disinfection: refers to the process of destroying microorganisms in the system to be treated, but the disinfection process is generally ineffective against microbial spores. Disinfection does not require the killing of all microorganisms in the system.
To meet the predetermined processing requirements, it is generally necessary to remove or deactivate the pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms in the system.
Bacteriostasis: inhibits the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, inhibits the activity of microorganisms in the system to be treated, and reduces the reproductive capacity or stagnates.
 
Second, silver ions in inorganic antibacterial agents
Antibacterial agents are generally divided into two major categories: inorganic and organic.
The organic antibacterial agent is mainly a chemical antibacterial agent, which destroys the cell membrane by a chemical reaction, has fast sterilization, good effect, low cost and wide application. However, the safety is poor, the effect is not long, and it is prone to patience.
Inorganic antibacterial agent, safe, long-lasting, high temperature resistant. No resistant bacteria will appear. Metal ions are a very important part of inorganic antibacterial agents, especially silver antibacterial agents have been the most widely used in recent years.
The antibacterial functional component of the silver-based antibacterial agent is silver ion. As an antibacterial agent, silver ion has the advantages of safety, broad spectrum, long-acting, non-tolerant bacteria and remarkable antibacterial effect. It is an ideal antibacterial agent. The disadvantage is that the silver ions are unstable and the processing cost is high. Silver ion-tolerant bacteria appear, that is, the bacteria are not resistant to silver ions. This is due to the unique bactericidal mechanism of silver ions.


(Figure: silver ion antibacterial mechanism)

 
The general antibacterial agent is mainly sterilized by destroying the cell membrane. As a result, bacteria that have been hit hard are constantly evolving and mutating, constantly adapting to increasingly toxic chemicals. There have even been so-called "super bacteria" that almost no drugs can be dealt with. These "super bacteria" used to be some "tame" bacteria. Just like Taijun Laojun's alchemy furnace, Sun Wukong is refining the eyes of the fire, and it is also “tempered” into super pathogens that can decompose drugs and are toxic enough to kill people, such as coliform O-157, tolerant grapes. Cocci (MRSA) and the like.
 
In summary, the mechanism of silver ion inhibition (mainly killing bacteria) is mainly reported by two universities. First, bacterial cell division and reproduction hinder it. Silver ions act as cations and enter the cell membrane of bacteria, react with intracellular enzymes, cause protein metabolism disorders, lead to metabolic disorders, and cell division (proliferation) functions stop. Bacteria deplete energy and lose vitality in the process of removing foreign components. The second is that silver ions activate to produce reactive oxygen species (OH-), which is oxidatively decomposing bacterial viruses. Silver ions are the most active of metal ions. In the presence of light and moisture (the air contains a certain amount of water), silver ions are activated to produce active oxygen (OH-). This safety is equivalent to the active oxygen (OH-) of natural ions, and it has several times the oxidative decomposition ability of ultraviolet light and ozone, and has a killing and decomposing effect on bacteria and viruses. In recent years, Japan's Sharp, Panasonic and other home appliances have adopted this sterilization and deodorization technology. Recently, some Japanese researchers have confirmed that even in dull water, silver ions produce reactive oxygen species (OH-).
 
The above two major mechanisms for killing bacteria have evidence of modern scientific tests such as electron microscopy. However, no matter which one is discussed, it can fully explain that the silver ion inhibits bacteria and viruses, making it impossible for bacteria and viruses to develop resistant bacteria.
 
Third, the silver ion antibacterial agent of the past and present
 
Silver ion is an antibacterial agent that is both traditional and often introduced.
Metallic silver in water, or in the air (there is a certain amount of water in the air), the surface of silver will release a small amount of silver ions, so it has a certain bactericidal effect. From ancient times, people began to use silverware. It has been found that the milk in the silverware does not deteriorate, the food does not deteriorate, and the silver earrings do not inflame the skin. Monks in Southeast Asia are still using silver bowls. These are examples of humans' empirical use of the antibacterial effect of silver. Later researchers also inspired them to develop various types of silver ion antibacterial products from experience to rational research.
It has long been possible to prepare a silver ion solution in a laboratory.
In 1884, the German obstetrician Crede dropped a 1% silver nitrate solution into the neonatal eye to prevent neonatal conjunctivitis and reduced the infant's blindness rate from 10% to 0.2%. Until now, many countries still use the Crede prevention method. In the 1920s and 1930s, countries such as Germany, France, and the old Soviet Union applied electrolytic silver ions to the sterilization of tap water. In the war of aggression against China, the Japanese army also used electrolytic silver ions to sterilize drinking water in the occupied area. However, at that time, due to poor manufacturing technology, low silver ion concentration and high cost, it was difficult to form industrial production. The sterilization of the incoming water can only give way to the newly emerging chemical, chlorine. After the emergence of chemically synthesized antibacterial agents represented by chlorine, they have dominated most of the market for antibacterial agents because of their strong bactericidal power, high speed and low cost. In addition to special antibacterial agents such as silver nitrate eye drops, silver ions are exhausted.
 
Ten years ago, nanotechnology emerged. Scientists have found that the bactericidal efficiency of silver has a lot to do with its surface area. By increasing the surface area, the amount of silver ions released can be increased, resulting in a qualitative leap in the bactericidal ability. That is to say, a very small amount of silver attached to the nano-sized carrier can produce a strong bactericidal action. Thus, at one time nano-silver powder (or silver-loaded) became fashionable. Some countries even support it as a new industry and compete to develop nano silver. However, in recent years, concerns about the negative impact of nano-environment and the human body have increased, and “running” nano-silver has developed problems in developed countries. At the end of 2003, South Korea’s Samsung Nano Silver Washing Machine took the initiative to recall the incident in North America and other places. On November 22, 2006, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) required companies selling nano silver in the United States to be obligated to present a scientific demonstration of the safety of the product to the EPA (see the Washington Post of the day). This is actually a developed country led by the United States, which began to stop the nano silver, which will have an impact on the manufacture and use of nano-silver enterprises. In 2009, British researchers published the conclusion that nano-damaged DNA. It is conceivable that the phenomenon that nanomaterials are used in the human body will soon be in the middle.
stop. Although this sound is not heard in China at present.
 
At the same time as nano silver is prevalent, the development of traditional electrolytic silver ions has also been carried out in countries such as Japan. Due to the problems of nano-products, companies that originally used nano-silver development products have turned to electrolytic silver ions, which also stimulates and accelerates the technical upgrade of electrolytic silver ion products. The industrial production of electrolytic silver ion antibacterial agents has always been the dream of many researchers. The once popular electrolysis silver ion was ultimately subject to the technical and historical conditions of the time and was not realized. Reasons for the difficulty of industrial production: Silver ions are extremely active ions, which are extremely easy to react with other substances and difficult to store. The high concentration and high purity of silver ions are difficult to decompose and concentrate, and the production environment is demanding. This is why the silver ion solution produced by electrolysis is rarely seen on the market. The low concentration, unstable silver ion product has no use value. Logistics storage costs are high and there is no commercial value.
 
In recent years, in Japan, electrolytic production has finally achieved a breakthrough in technology. Finally, it is possible to produce an electrolytic silver ion solution which can be diluted hundreds of times, has a pure ion concentration of up to several hundred ml/g, and has high purity and stable performance. Breaking the current market situation where silver ions have only a single variety of nano silver. It has made it possible to popularize silver ion antibacterial agents. The silver ion solution prepared by electrolysis has no nano silver carrier, and the composition is simple and pure, and has no impurities. It can be directly used for disinfection and environmental disinfection of human skin and mucous membranes. Highly concentrated silver ion solution, colorless, odorless, transparent, easy to compound processing and storage.
 
The silver ion obtained by electrolysis is a pure silver ion preparation without any attached carrier. After a certain amount of silver ions are consumed, the silver ions are gone, so it is safe. There is no accumulation of silver ions, and there is no ecological and physical safety concerns caused by the accumulation of nanosilver in the environment or in the body. The concentration of silver ions obtained by electrolysis is a pure silver ion concentration and can be determined by accurate concentration standard measurement. A concentration of 0.5 to 1.0 ppm of pure silver ion can kill most bacteria and viruses. The application of silver ions for more than 100 years, mainly electricity
The application history of solving silver ions. Authorities, including the International Health Organization (WHO), have a classic discussion of the application of silver ions, and how many concentrations have bactericidal effects on which pathogens, detailed information is available for reference. These materials are based on electrolytic silver ions. There is no information on nano-type silver ions in the literature of the International Health Organization (WHO).

4. Classification and characteristics of silver ion antibacterial agents
 
1, pharmaceuticals
 
There are powders and solutions. Appeared earlier. In the modern pharmacopoeia, it has successively contained four silver-containing drugs, such as silver nitrate, protein silver, silver charcoal, silver sulfadiazine, for the treatment of conjunctivitis, gonorrhea, cystitis, dysentery, enteritis, burns and other diseases. . The representative product is silver nitrate eye drops. The most used is silver nitrate. Medically, 1% concentration of silver nitrate is commonly used in neonatal eye drops for gonococcal infection and for the treatment of conjunctivitis.
 
2, electrolytic silver ions
liquid. It appeared early, but it was difficult to industrialize for a long time. High concentration, high purity manufacturing is a recent breakthrough.
 
3, nano silver
Or silver. powder. There are a variety of carrier materials available for use in the manufacturing process, so there are many products on the market. The manufacturing process of nano silver requires a mineral such as zirconium phosphate, apatite or zeolite as a carrier, wherein the silver content is about 3%. In principle, by processing the silver-containing carrier into nano-scale micropowder and increasing the unit surface area of ​​silver, the release amount of silver ions is increased, and the bactericidal power is improved. The main use of nano-silver micropowder is to process antibacterial fiber. If the nano-silver powder is to be processed into an aqueous solution, the processing method is to dissolve the micropowder in water. Therefore, the nanosilver solution is a solution containing a carrier, and the concentration of the nanosilver solution is the concentration of silver ions of the mineral-containing carrier.
 
Nanosilver is actually a general term for products that contain a variety of manufacturing methods, different carriers, and varying quality effects. Nano units can be called nanometers from 1 to 999 nanometers, each phase is 1 nanometer unit, and the difference in surface area will increase geometrically. It is conceivable that the difference in surface area between a 1 nanometer unit and a 999 nanometer unit would be enormous. The smaller the nano unit, the larger the surface area, and the more free silver ions, the better the sterilization effect. Therefore, the same is the nano silver, the quality price is very different. At present, the nanometer unit of the highest level of nano silver products (Japan East Asia Synthetic Co., Ltd.) is 4 nanometer units. Generally, nano silver products are in the range of 20 to 30 nanometers. The products are mixed, and the price gap can be imagined. Coupled with the fact that nanometers are difficult to verify, it is difficult to judge even with sophisticated instruments. This has affected the credit of nano silver. Therefore, it is also called silver (nano silver). In the market, some 1 kilograms sell for several thousand yuan, and some are only a few hundred yuan. The difference is ten times, and it is difficult for customers to adapt.

The above three types of silver ion antibacterial agents, the components that achieve their bactericidal function are all containing silver ions.
 
Different types of silver ion antibacterial agents are limited in their use due to their physical form, performance and composition.
 
A silver-based antibacterial agent represented by silver nitrate, although appeared earlier. However, there is a nitric acid component, so the use is mainly limited to eye drops. In developed countries such as Europe, America and Japan, it is not allowed to be used in skin and mucous membranes and environmental sterilization.
 
The use of antibacterial agents such as silver nitrate is professional, and nano silver and electrolytic silver are widely used and are relatively easy to be confused.
 
Nano silver solution and electrolytic silver ion solution are the same and different concepts. This is something to be pointed out. The bactericidal functional ingredients contained are all silver ions. But the content is different. The electrolytic silver solution contains pure silver ions, and the carrier contained in the nano silver solution is the main component, and the silver ions are only a small amount. Second, the concentration measurement units used for nano silver and electrolytic silver are both ml/g (ppm), and the concentration of the pure silver ion contained in the electrolytic silver solution that is commonly used internationally is indicated. The labeled concentration of nanosilver is the concentration comprising the nanocarrier. Moreover, due to the uneven technology of nano silver manufacturers, even if the same concentration is indicated, the actual concentration of silver ions is not the same, and the sterilization effect is naturally different.
 
From the above, it is difficult to compare the concentration of the electrolytic silver ion solution with the nano silver ion solution.
 
We can only make a rough analysis and comparison with the minimum inhibitory concentration. The nano silver solution 250 to 500 ppm corresponds to a pure silver ion concentration of 1 ppm. That is, the antibacterial power of the electrolytic silver ion solution at 1 ppm is approximately equivalent to the antibacterial power of the nano silver solution at a concentration of 250 to 500 ppm. Namely: the nano silver ion solution [MIC] is: 62 ppm to 250 ppm, and the electrolytic silver ion solution [MIC] is: 0.05 ppm to 0.5 ppm. The simple concentration is about 500 to 1.
 
form:
The electrolytic silver ionic liquid is a colorless, odorless transparent liquid. The nanosilver solution is divided into two types, colorless, transparent, and brown, depending on the carrier. The brown solution uses inexpensive materials such as apatite and is inexpensive.
The physical form of nanosilver is a powder. In the market, many solutions using nano silver powder to replace silver ions are sold. The speed and concentration of silver ions eluted (released) from the carrier are different depending on the nano silver powder of each manufacturer, and the process is cumbersome and the price is high. Therefore, processing silver ion liquid from nano silver is not the advantage of silver loading.
The electrolytic silver ion product is a liquid. It is a colorless, odorless, non-toxic transparent aqueous solution containing no carrier particles. Therefore, it can be used for mucosal tissues such as eyes, mouth, nostrils, skin and vagina.
Theoretically, as long as silver ions do not react with other elements, do not form silver compounds, and do not become new substances, the bactericidal effect of silver ions has always existed. Even if silver ions enter the nucleus of the bacteria, causing the bacteria to die and then dissolving again, they can still be sterilized.

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